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 Combined Operations - 170 webpages, 2,000 photos, 250,000 visits and 7 million hits each year. The definitive Combined Ops website.

Please 'like' the Combined Operations Command memorial on Facebook in appreciation of  Allied veterans of WW2.  News and Information at the bottom of this and every webpage including Walcheren 70th anniversary commemorative events.

~ LOFOTEN ISLANDS 2nd RAID ~

 OPERATION ANKLET - 26/27th DEC 1941

Operation Anklet, the second Lofoten Islands raid, was a diversion in support of a larger action at Vaagso further south on the Norwegian coast. There was no opposition to the landing, but a near miss from a German bomber convinced the planners that in future operations of this kind, air cover would be provided as a matter of routine.

Background Plans & Prep Action Outcome Summary of Action Further Reading Correspondence



 

Background

The Lofoten Islands lie off the Norwegian coast about 100 miles north of the Arctic Circle. In appearance and size they resemble the Outer Hebrides off the north west coast of Scotland. They were selected by Combined Operations HQ as a relative safe diversionary target to coincide with the main Vaagso raid some 300 miles south. [Photos courtesy of Capt OB 'Mickey' Rooney's family; 1) Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands, 2) En route to Norway.]

Plans & Preparation

Since the first Lofoten Raid in March 1941 the German forces in Norway had been strengthened including air cover (as Churchill had expected). Feints and major raids were now a legitimate tactic to divert attention, confuse the enemy and to promote the idea in the collective mind of the German High Command that Norway was a serious option for the launch of an invasion of mainland Europe from the UK. [Photos; 3) Cruiser Arethusa on escort duty to Norway, 4) Sorvagen Landed on Quay.]

Action

300 men from No 12 Commando and a number from the Royal Norwegian Army under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel S.S. Harrison landed at 06.00 hours on Boxing Day. The planners had timed the raid in the expectation that the German garrison would be caught off guard. This was especially likely after the Christmas festivities of the day before. [Photos; 5) Vorge Fjord, 6) Surveying craft sent from admiralty to pick up captured documents.]

The landings were unopposed as the men, wearing white hooded overalls, entered two harbours on the westerly island of Moskenesoy. The towns of Reine and Moskenes were soon occupied and a small number of German prisoners and quislings were taken including those manning the wireless station at Glaapen. A large supply of French chocolates and cigarettes was found and distributed to grateful locals. However there was concern about reprisals and many locals wanted the British forces to stay. 

Admiral Hamilton on his Cruiser HMS Arethusa, with 8 destroyers in support, was tempted to consider a prolonged stay. There was after all no sunrise in these latitudes between the 10th December to 3rd January so the risk of attack from the air was much reduced. However a bomb dropped by a German seaplane on the 27th fell close to the cruiser so Harrison decided to withdraw having completed the mission successfully. 

Outcome

Two radio transmitters were demolished, several small German boats captured and a few Germans and Quislings taken prisoner - and there was disruption of sea communications in the area. The raid had served its purpose and all men and equipment returned safely. However, this was the last time such a raid was undertaken without air support. The nature of this form of warfare was changing as both sides assimilated past experiences into future planning.

Summary of Action

Allied Forces: Sea - HMS Arethusa & 8 Destroyers. Land - 300 men from No 12 Commando.

Axis Forces: Land - Local German Garrison. 

Outcome (Positive): A unopposed diversionary raid. Two radio transmitters demolished. Capture of several small German boats, Germans and Quislings.

Outcome (Negative): None.

Further Reading

There are over 200 books listed on our 'Combined Operations Books' page which can be purchased on-line from the Advanced Book Exchange (ABE) whose search banner checks the shelves of thousands of book shops world-wide. Type in or copy and paste the title of your choice or use the 'keyword' box for book suggestions. There's no obligation to buy, no registration and no passwords. Click 'Books' for more information.

The Vaagso Raid; The Commando Attack That Changed The Course of World War II by Joseph H. Devins.

Lofoten Museum's  page on the Lofoten 2nd Raid.

Commandos and Rangers of World War 2 by James D. Ladd. Published in 1978 by MacDonald & Jane's. ISBN 0 356 08432 9

Commandos 1940 - 1946 by Charles Messenger. Published by William Kimber, London 1985. ISBN 0 7183 0553 1

The Watery Maze by Bernard Fergusson published 1961 by Collins.

Correspondence

My father, Sub Lt (Sp) TBC Miller RNVR (photo opposite), took part in Operation Anklet in December 1941. He left us some secret papers about it. He was a Sub-Lieutenant in Naval Intelligence attached to Admiral Hamilton of the cruiser HMS Arethusa. He led twelve Norwegian (sailors or resistance?) in a fishing boat and captured four armed Germans in Soorvagen and two Norwegian collaborators. He was very upset at having to arrest the Norwegians in their homes because it was Christmas time and one of the wives took something from her Christmas tree and gave it to her husband before he was taken away. I do not know what happened to these men but I hope they were cared for. I expect that they were taken to England for questioning and were 
probably released after the war?

The removal of the Germans made it easier for Major Torrence and his commandos to destroy the Radio Transmitter on Skomvaer Island. My father was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross for his action and we have the medal, his report to Flag Officer, Force J (Admiral Hamilton) and his uniform.

See signal from Flag Officer, Force J (Admiral Hamilton) on cruiser HMS Arethusa, to all his officers after the operation.

William Miller

Please let us know if you have any information or book recommendations to add to this page.

News & Information

Battle of the Scheldt / Operation Infatuate / Walcheren.

70th Anniversary Commemorative Events - 2014

The Zealand Liberation Museum in Nieuwdorp, South Beveland is organising remembrance events for 2014. They are pleased to publish preliminary information of planned remembrance events for veterans involved in this important battle and their families and friends. Revisions to the plans will be posted here when received from the organisers. 25th October (English). 25th October (Dutch). 1st November (English). 1st November (Dutch).

Please 'like' the Combined Operations Command memorial  Facebook page in appreciation of our WW2 veterans. See the 'slide shows' of the dedication ceremony and the construction of the memorial plus the 'On this day in 194?' feature where major events are featured on their anniversary dates. 

WW2 Combined Operations Handbook. This handbook was prepared for Combined Operations in the Far East. It illustrates the depth and complexity of the planning process necessary to ensure that the 3 services worked together as a unified force.

Legion díHonneur Applications. In conjunction with events to mark the 70th Anniversary of the Normandy landings, the Government of France has advised the Ministry of Defence that it wishes to award the Legion díHonneur to all surviving veterans; not only of the landings, but also the wider Battle for Normandy; the Invasion of Provence (Operation Dragoon); the Liberation of Paris and the Liberation of France.

Any veterans, not only troops that landed, but also Royal Navy and Royal Air Force personnel who operated in support of the landings may apply. Click here for application form and further information from the MOD.

 

Find Books of Interest.  Search for Books direct from our Books page. Don't have the name of a book in mind? Just type in a keyword to get a list of possibilities... and if you want to purchase you can do so on line through the Advanced Book Exchange (ABE). 5% commission goes into the memorial fund.

 

Newsletter. The latest occasional newsletter can now be read here.

Free WW1 Teaching Resource. Newspaper cuttings in the form of a 13 page booklet (26 sides) with published accounts of aspects of the war during 1914 to 1919. Available to schools, universities, libraries and accredited education establishments.  Pdf version or
www.historic-newspapers.co.uk/ for printed version.

Follow in the footsteps of the Commandos. Exclusive guided tour of the places in Tunisia with advice from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Steve Hamilton of Western Desert Battlefield Tours.

 

 

Thames River Cruiser FARMAR. Do you know what this craft did in WW2? If so you may have information to help a restoration project. More information on our Notice Board.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Gazelle Helicopter Squadron Display Team. The Gazelle Squadron is a unique team of ex-British Military Gazelle helicopters in their original military colours and with their original military registrations. The core team includes four Gazelles, one from each service; The Royal Navy, The Royal Marines, The Army Air Corps and The Royal Air Force. A fifth Gazelle in Royal Marines colours will provide intimate support for the team. Their crest includes the Combined Operations badge. The last, and possibly, only time the badge was seen on an aircraft was in the early mid 40s. A photo of the Hurricane concerned is included in the 516 Squadron webpage.
 

 

 

Legasee Film Archive. As part of an exciting social history project, the film company Legasee is looking for veterans from any conflict who would like to have their stories filmed for posterity. Films are now available on line.

New to Combined Ops? Visit Combined Operations Explained for an easy introduction to the subject.

 

 

Remember a Veteran. Add names to our Roll of Honour and They Also Served pages and read the Combined Operations prayer.

 

 

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