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 Combined Operations - 170 webpages, 2,000 photos, 250,000 visits and 7 million hits each year. The definitive Combined Ops website.

Please 'like' the Combined Operations Command memorial on Facebook in appreciation of  Allied veterans of WW2.  News and Information at the bottom of this and every webpage.

~ MOUNTBATTEN ~

Lord Louis Mountbatten was in charge of the Combined Operations Command from 27/10/41 to October 43 when Churchill sent him to Burma.

The Early Years

Mountbatten was born on 25 June 1900 the younger son of Prince Louis of Battenberg who was Admiral of the Fleet and First Sea Lord in 1914. At the age of 13 Mountbatten entered the Royal Naval College at Osborne where he passed out 15th out of 83 cadets. His service started in the First World War at the tender age of 16. He gained experience of battleships, submarines and destroyers and was an acknowledged expert in signals. He became a well known and respected public figure endowed with energy, spirit, dash and intellectual ability. The Navy shared this view of him as his rise through the ranks would later illustrate. His was a career overflowing with challenges and achievements. Because of this we concentrate here on his time with Combined Operations. [Photo; COHQ 1942: L to R -Willets, Horan, Haydon, Mountbatten, Robb, Wildman-Lushington, Ellis]

Appointment to Combined Operations

In August of 1941 Mountbatten was appointed captain of HMS Illustrious...a command he eagerly anticipated as his ship lay in Norfolk, Virginia for repairs following action in the Mediterranean in January. During this period of relative inactivity he paid a flying visit to Pearl Harbour. He was not impressed with the poor state of readiness and a general lack of co-operation between the Navy and Army including the absence of a joint HQ. Interesting observations in view of what was about to happen to Mountbatten himself and later to Pearl Harbour! An Admiralty signal caught up with him on his return journey to Norfolk. It was a personal telegram from Churchill recalling him, by the fastest possible means, to the UK. The order was not to be challenged or queried. Despite an assurance from Churchill that he was required for "something that you will find of the highest interest," Mountbatten was far from happy to have the command of his dreams snatched away.

The meeting with Churchill at Chequers was not the most harmonious on record but in a visionary briefing Churchill defined the role of Combined Operations Adviser along the following lines;

  •  he was to succeed Roger Keyes in charge of Combined Operations,

  •  he was to develop a programme of Commando raids along the North Sea and Atlantic coastlines of enemy held territory increasing in intensity and designed to tie up German resources that might otherwise be used on other fronts,

  •  he was to plan and prepare for the re-invasion of Europe. This was to be the overriding priority. In this regard Churchill made the point that all other HQs were on the defensive. Combined Operations had to think offensively.

Mountbatten's military achievements and qualities were not well understood outside naval circles and he was succeeding a man of great renown, 28 years his senior and of much higher rank. Superficially he was not, therefore, the most obvious successor to Keyes. However, what Mountbatten had in abundance was tact and diplomacy - personal qualities that were to help overcome inter service rivalries and promote a sense of mutual trust, confidence and common purpose.

Duties and Responsibilities

On taking up his new duties on 27 October 1941 a new directive (job description) had been prepared and approved by the Chiefs of Staff. Unlike Keyes' directive (or his interpretation of it) there was no mention of the Minister of Defence (Churchill). This time the duties were to be "technical adviser on all aspects of, and at all stages in, the planning and training for Combined Operations." His remit included;

  •  coordinating inter-service training,

  •  running the UK Combined Operations Training Establishments (Inveraray and others), 

  •  advising on tactical and technical research and development,

  •  devising the special craft needed "for all forms of Combined Operations varying from small raids to a full scale invasion of the Continent."

He inherited a Combined Operations HQ (COHQ) that did not measure up to the tasks in hand and he set about major changes to personnel, organisation and communications. There were no planning staff, no signals staff, no training staff and no Chief of Staff and only a token intelligence presence. He immediately set about recruiting the staff he needed and in short order the premises occupied by COHQ at Richmond Terrace were added to. Such were the dynamics of the changes that for some weeks internal communications broke down under the strain! The enormity of the challenge would have daunted many lesser men but within five weeks Mountbatten had produced a set of proposals for the Chief's of Staff and he had the confidence to act upon them before receiving formal approval from them.

Within a few months the Chiefs of Staff knew they had an adviser whose position and standing were clear to all and whose reputation improved with the passage of time. Above all the Chiefs of Staff were prepared to back Mountbatten to the fullest extent. He had, after all, the full backing of the Prime Minister and everyone knew it; but they also knew that there was no question of him (Mountbatten) abusing his position. Consequent to all this be was elevated to Chief of Combined Operations on 18/03/42. To a large extent the greatest testimony to Mountbatten's stewardship of Combined Operations is the historical record he left behind much of which is the subject of this website.

D-Day was the culmination of Mountbatten's plans and preparations for offensive operations against the German forces. Although he had left for Burma some 8 months prior to D-Day Churchill wrote to him following a visit he made with others to the Normandy beaches on D Day + 6;

Today we visited the British and American Armies on the soil of France. We sailed through vast fleets of ships with landing-craft of many types pouring more men, vehicles and stores ashore. We saw clearly the manoeuvre in progress of rapid development. We have shared our secrets in common and helped each other all we could. We wish to tell you at this moment in your arduous campaign that we realise how much of this remarkable technique and therefore the success of the venture has its origin in developments effected by you and your staff of Combined Operations.

(Signed) Arnold, Brooke, Churchill, King, Marshall, Smut.

In recognition of Mountbatten's great contribution to the war effort this signal appears in the information display at the Combined Operations Memorial in the grounds of the National Memorial Arboretum in Staffordshire.

The Kilfinan Egg  - the personal recollections of a child who met him briefly.

During the war years Sheena Simpson lived with her parents, Jean and Adam Campbell, at the Kilfinan Hotel in the little parish of Kilfinan, near Tighnabruaich on the shores of Loch Fyne, Scotland. She now lives in Canada with her family but reminisces about a VIP guest who arrived at the hotel in February 1942.

It was early in the month and her mother had just had a visit from a Major Harrap and another officer informing her that the hotel was to be commandeered for about a week to 10 days while a Combined Operations exercise took place. She was also told that, on the final days of the exercise, they would be receiving, for breakfast, a VIP guest with his equerry. "Mother almost fainted. She was so sure it was going to be King George. 'Only royalty have equerries!' she gasped to which I replied: 'No mother, I think it will be Lord Louis Mountbatten.' This made sense to me as it was to be a Combined Operations exercise and Mountbatten was the top man.

There was quite a buzz in the hotel that week with MPs guarding the doors and lots of saluting and stamping of feet every time an officer went past. It was like something out of a British movie. Lord Mountbatten arrived in a Jeep type vehicle and wore regular naval uniform, whereas most of the other officers were in battle dress with warm sheepskin jerkins on. The weather that February was very cold . Other VIPs that met at the hotel on that final day of the exercise with Mountbatten were General Alexander, General Festing, Air Marshall Harris and also the War Minister at that time, Sir James Grigg. The hotel didn't need too much preparation for our visitors but the dining room was rearranged to accommodate everyone for the final breakfast. There were two sittings; first the lesser ranking officials and then approximately 20 top brass. I was very impressed with the concern and courtesy shown to mother and myself by the big wigs. We were provided with help for serving from General Festing's servant and he was just super at his job.

The hotel had been issued with extra rations so we were able to make bacon and eggs for everyone much to Lord Mountbatten's delight. Later on that afternoon Mountbatten and his equerry came back on their own looking for a very quick cup of tea. As the kettle was going to take too long to boil Lord Mountbatten decided to have a small ginger ale instead. This I got from the bar, but mother was getting in a flap having this handsome, charming, courteous man, in naval uniform, with all the gold braid of an Admiral, actually in her kitchen. It was all getting too much for her. Mountbatten's equerry asked how much was owed for the ginger ale. Mother laughed and coyly said 'Oh nothing , nothing at all.' To me, all of 17 years, this seemed unfair and I piped up politely, 'I think it's thruppence ha'penny.' This said Mountbatten's aide produced the exact change. 

At this point they asked if we had any eggs left they could buy - there was only one! The egg was produced, this time no charge, and was carried away by Lord Mountbatten in his leather gloved hand. All this constitutes a picture which is clearly etched on my memory and I often wonder if the Kilfinan Hotel egg made it back whole to the destroyer anchored out on Loch Fyne. We were all worn out by the end of the week and everything seemed so quiet. Later that year was the raid on Dieppe with Mountbatten in charge. I wondered if that week's exercise had all been part of the training." 

Why was the Kilfinan Hotel used for such a VIP gathering? Maybe because it was out of the way yet at the heart of the Combined Operations Training Area and not far from the Loch. Many VIPs visited Argyll during the period to watch newly developed amphibious landing training methods.

With a Combined Operations training centre at Inveraray specialising in amphibious assault techniques and an army base at Ardlamont, Loch Fyne, over a quarter of a million servicemen and women spent time training in and around the area during the early to mid 1940s. Many of them have returned to Argyll over the years to honour the memory of the men and women who did not return from the field of conflict.

[The inside story of a visit by Mountbatten to a small hotel in rural Argyll was written by Catriona McColl for a local newspaper.]

Further Reading

There are over 200 books listed on our 'Combined Operations Books' page which can be purchased on-line from the Advanced Book Exchange (ABE) whose search banner checks the shelves of thousands of book shops world-wide. Type in or copy and paste the title of your choice or use the 'keyword' box for book suggestions. There's no obligation to buy, no registration and no passwords. Click 'Books' for more information.

More biographical information outside of the Combined Operations period with many links to other pages.

Richard Hough; Mountbatten:  hero of our time; London : Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1980 xiii, 290 p. ISBN 0297778056

Philip Ziegler Mountbatten : the official biography London : Collins, 1985 786 p. ISBN 0002165430

John Terraine The life and times of Lord Mountbatten : an illustrated biography based on the television history London : Hutchinson, 1968 x, 197 p. ISBN 0090888103

Brian Loring Villa Unauthorized action : Mountbatten and the Dieppe Raid Toronto ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1989 xiii, 314 p. ISBN 0195406796

Eugene L. Rasor Earl Mountbatten of Burma, 1900-1979 : historiography and annotated bibliography
Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1998 xvii, 139 p. ISBN 0313288763
 

News & Information

 

Please 'like' the Combined Operations Command memorial  Facebook page in appreciation of our WW2 veterans. See the 'slide shows' of the dedication ceremony and the construction of the memorial plus the 'On this day in 194?' feature where major events are featured on their anniversary dates. 

WW2 Combined Operations Handbook. This handbook was prepared for Combined Operations in the Far East. It illustrates the depth and complexity of the planning process necessary to ensure that the 3 services worked together as a unified force.

Legion díHonneur Applications. In conjunction with events to mark the 70th Anniversary of the Normandy landings, the Government of France has advised the Ministry of Defence that it wishes to award the Legion díHonneur to all surviving veterans; not only of the landings, but also the wider Battle for Normandy; the Invasion of Provence (Operation Dragoon); the Liberation of Paris and the Liberation of France.

Any veterans, not only troops that landed, but also Royal Navy and Royal Air Force personnel who operated in support of the landings may apply. Click here for application form and further information from the MOD.

 

Find Books of Interest.  Search for Books direct from our Books page. Don't have the name of a book in mind? Just type in a keyword to get a list of possibilities... and if you want to purchase you can do so on line through the Advanced Book Exchange (ABE). 5% commission goes into the memorial fund.

 

Newsletter. The latest occasional newsletter can now be read here.

Free WW1 Teaching Resource. Newspaper cuttings in the form of a 13 page booklet (26 sides) with published accounts of aspects of the war during 1914 to 1919. Available to schools, universities, libraries and accredited education establishments.  Pdf version or
www.historic-newspapers.co.uk/ for printed version.

 

 

 

 

Thames River Cruiser FARMAR. Do you know what this craft did in WW2? If so you may have information to help a restoration project. More information on our Notice Board.

The Gazelle Helicopter Squadron Display Team. The Gazelle Squadron is a unique team of ex-British Military Gazelle helicopters in their original military colours and with their original military registrations. The core team includes four Gazelles, one from each service; The Royal Navy, The Royal Marines, The Army Air Corps and The Royal Air Force. A fifth Gazelle in Royal Marines colours will provide intimate support for the team. Their crest includes the Combined Operations badge. The last, and possibly, only time the badge was seen on an aircraft was in the early mid 40s. A photo of the Hurricane concerned is included in the 516 Squadron webpage.

 

Legasee Film Archive. As part of an exciting social history project, the film company Legasee is looking for veterans from any conflict who would like to have their stories filmed for posterity. Films are now available on line.

New to Combined Ops? Visit Combined Operations Explained for an easy introduction to the subject.

 

 

 

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