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 Combined Operations - 170 webpages, 2,000 photos, 250,000 visits and 7 million hits each year. The definitive Combined Ops website.

Please 'like' the Combined Operations Command memorial on Facebook in appreciation of  Allied veterans of WW2.  News and Information at the bottom of this and every webpage including Walcheren 70th anniversary commemorative events.

~ LOFOTEN ISLANDS RAID ~

 OPERATION CLAYMORE - 3/4 MAR 1941

Operation Claymore was the 1st Lofoten Islands raid off the Norwegian coast just north of the Arctic Circle. It achieved a good measure of destruction of German ships and fish factory oil and it gave free passage to the UK to over 300 Norwegian volunteers and a few Germans and Quislings. It was, however, most notable for giving a great boost to flagging morale within the ranks of the Commandos and later the country as news of the raid was made public.

Background

Plans & Preparations

Action

Outcome

Further Reading

Background

This successful raid involved naval and land forces - HMS Queen Emma, Princess Beatrix and a naval escort of 5 destroyers + No 3 & 4 Commandos. The primary targets were Norwegian fish oil factories. Their destruction would be a blow to German Glycerine production. 11 factories and 5 ships were destroyed, 225 Germans & 60 Quislings taken prisoner and 314 volunteers given passage to UK based Norwegian forces. There were no losses. Click on maps to enlarge.

Plans & Preparations

The Lofoten Islands lie off the Norwegian coast about 100 miles north of the Arctic Circle . In appearance and size they resemble the Outer Hebrides off the north west coast of Scotland. They were targeted by British planners, not only because they met Churchill's directive to harass German forces along the length of the North Sea and Atlantic coasts of mainland Europe, but also because they contributed to the German war effort. It was known that several factories processed herring oil into glycerin for munitions.

On 21 February, under the command of Brigadier Haydon, a flotilla comprising HMS Queen Emma, Princess Beatrix and a naval escort of 5 destroyers, left Scapa Flow in the Orkney Islands. The destination was the Faroe Islands for final training. It was here that the No. 3 and 4 Special Services Battalion Company designations reverted to No. 4 and No. 3 Commando respectively - the former under the command of Lt. Colonel Lister and the latter under Lt Colonel Durnford-Slater. This was part of a much wider reorganisation of Special Forces which was completed by mid March 1941. On 1 March the 500 commandos, some sappers for demolition and 50 Norwegian sailors set off for the Norwegian coast.

Action

The weather was foul on the three-day voyage and the cramped living conditions made all the worse by the seasickness suffered by all on board. With 24 hours to go before their arrival a German aircraft spotted them and reported to German Air force HQ. There was, in the event, no reaction. The flotilla arrived off The Lofoten Islands in the early hours of 4 March. As they boarded the landing craft, for four separate destinations, lights could be seen twinkling in the distance. Clearly the notion of a raid had not entered the minds of the German command. The intense cold and sea spray caused ice to form on the Commando's protective clothing and the landings were more abrupt than usual as the craft lowered their ramps onto solid ice.

The surprise was complete. Even some locals going to work assumed that the activity was a German training exercise! German soldiers, officials and collaborators were rounded up and before long fish oil factories, military establishments and ships in the harbour were systematically blown up. The Norwegians provided hot ersatz coffee to those Commandos in a position to accept.

Even in war there is humour. Lieutenant R L Wills sent a telegram to one A Hitler of Berlin from the telegraph office at Stamsund. "You said in your last speech German troops would meet the British wherever they landed. Where are your troops?" Equally cheeky was a bus ride taken by Lord Lovat and some of his men to a nearby seaplane base. The commander of the base later complained about the "unwarlike" behaviour of the Commandos and undertook to report accordingly to the Fuhrer!

Outcome

By midday the demolition work was complete and re-embarkation commenced. There had been no significant resistance which for some Commandos was a disappointment considering their training and the objective of denuding German forces. However they had destroyed 11 factories, 800,000 gallons of oil and five ships and had acquired 314 volunteers (including 8 women) for the Norwegian forces, 60 Quislings, 225 German prisoners and the English manager of Messrs Allen & Hanbury, chemists, who had been caught there in the war - all at a price of one accidental self-inflicted wound to an officer's thigh!

Not reported at the time was the recovery, from the trawler Krebs, of a set of spare rotors for a German Enigma coding machine. These were dispatched to Bletchley Park where they were of great use to the code breakers.

The months prior to this raid had been a frustrating time for the Commandos/Special Services. They had volunteered for hazardous duties at a time of exaltation by the authorities but were left with little to do - and there was disagreement about how these forces should be used and organised. Morale was understandably at a low ebb. Although this raid was virtually unopposed it demonstrated what could be achieved by a relatively small force, trained for the purpose and with the element of surprise. The success of the raid was a fillip to morale in some quarters, but, there were some amongst the Commandos themselves, who were disappointed and disillusioned that the hazardous duties they had volunteered and trained for, had been used for such purposes.

Further Reading

There are over 200 books listed on our 'Combined Operations Books' page which can be purchased on-line from the Advanced Book Exchange (ABE) whose search banner checks the shelves of thousands of book shops world-wide. Type in or copy and paste the title of your choice or use the 'keyword' box for book suggestions. There's no obligation to buy, no registration and no passwords. Click 'Books' for more information.

Lofoten Museum's page on Operation Claymore - the 1st Lofoten Raid.

The Epic of Lofoten by Dr G Miles published by Hutchinson in 1941.

Secret German Documents Seized during the Raid on the Lofoten Islands on 4th March 1941 HMSO's Command 6270 Norway No 1 (1941)

Raid on Military and Economic Objectives in the Lofoten Islands published 22 June 1948 Supplement to The London Gazette.

A 6.75 minute film about the raid produced by the Ministry of Information and the War Office and released in 1941 that included footage of 3 Commando ashore at Stamsund.

Lofoten Letter by Evan John, published in 1941 by Heinemann, is a diary of the raid written by a member of No 4 Commando. His real name was Evan John Simpson, the author and playwright.

HMS Bedouin and the Long March Home by Percy Hagger, published by Navigator Books. The content about Operation Claymore is not extensive but it does cover the involvement of HMS Bedouin in the raid, including the sinking of the MS Mira and the picking up of survivors.

Commandos and Rangers of World War 2 by James D. Ladd. Published in 1978 by MacDonald & Jane's. ISBN 0 356 08432 9

Commandos 1940 - 1946 by Charles Messenger. Pub by William Kimber, London 1985. ISBN 0 7183 0553 1

Commando by Dunford-Slater. Published by Kimber 1953 - from the pen of one of the major players.

ENIGMA - The Battle of the Code by Hugh Sebag-Montefiore. A paperback published in 2001 (pages 132 onwards).

Please let us know if you have any information or book recommendations to add to this page.

News & Information

Battle of the Scheldt / Operation Infatuate / Walcheren.

70th Anniversary Commemorative Events - 2014

The Zealand Liberation Museum in Nieuwdorp, South Beveland is organising remembrance events for 2014. They are pleased to publish preliminary information of planned remembrance events for veterans involved in this important battle and their families and friends. Revisions to the plans will be posted here when received from the organisers. 25th October (English). 25th October (Dutch). 1st November (English). 1st November (Dutch).

Please 'like' the Combined Operations Command memorial  Facebook page in appreciation of our WW2 veterans. See the 'slide shows' of the dedication ceremony and the construction of the memorial plus the 'On this day in 194?' feature where major events are featured on their anniversary dates. 

WW2 Combined Operations Handbook. This handbook was prepared for Combined Operations in the Far East. It illustrates the depth and complexity of the planning process necessary to ensure that the 3 services worked together as a unified force.

Legion díHonneur Applications. In conjunction with events to mark the 70th Anniversary of the Normandy landings, the Government of France has advised the Ministry of Defence that it wishes to award the Legion díHonneur to all surviving veterans; not only of the landings, but also the wider Battle for Normandy; the Invasion of Provence (Operation Dragoon); the Liberation of Paris and the Liberation of France.

Any veterans, not only troops that landed, but also Royal Navy and Royal Air Force personnel who operated in support of the landings may apply. Click here for application form and further information from the MOD.

 

Find Books of Interest.  Search for Books direct from our Books page. Don't have the name of a book in mind? Just type in a keyword to get a list of possibilities... and if you want to purchase you can do so on line through the Advanced Book Exchange (ABE). 5% commission goes into the memorial fund.

 

Newsletter. The latest occasional newsletter can now be read here.

Free WW1 Teaching Resource. Newspaper cuttings in the form of a 13 page booklet (26 sides) with published accounts of aspects of the war during 1914 to 1919. Available to schools, universities, libraries and accredited education establishments.  Pdf version or
www.historic-newspapers.co.uk/ for printed version.

Follow in the footsteps of the Commandos. Exclusive guided tour of the places in Tunisia with advice from the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and Steve Hamilton of Western Desert Battlefield Tours.

 

 

Thames River Cruiser FARMAR. Do you know what this craft did in WW2? If so you may have information to help a restoration project. More information on our Notice Board.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Gazelle Helicopter Squadron Display Team. The Gazelle Squadron is a unique team of ex-British Military Gazelle helicopters in their original military colours and with their original military registrations. The core team includes four Gazelles, one from each service; The Royal Navy, The Royal Marines, The Army Air Corps and The Royal Air Force. A fifth Gazelle in Royal Marines colours will provide intimate support for the team. Their crest includes the Combined Operations badge. The last, and possibly, only time the badge was seen on an aircraft was in the early mid 40s. A photo of the Hurricane concerned is included in the 516 Squadron webpage.
 

 

 

Legasee Film Archive. As part of an exciting social history project, the film company Legasee is looking for veterans from any conflict who would like to have their stories filmed for posterity. Films are now available on line.

New to Combined Ops? Visit Combined Operations Explained for an easy introduction to the subject.

 

 

Remember a Veteran. Add names to our Roll of Honour and They Also Served pages and read the Combined Operations prayer.

 

 

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