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 Over 170  webpages, 3000 photos, 300,000 visits and 7 million hits each year. The definitive Combined Ops website.

 Please 'like' the Combined Operations Command memorial on Facebook in appreciation of  Allied veterans of WW2.  News and Information at the bottom of this and every webpage.

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"On this day in 194?"
(Significant events in the Combined Operations Calendar).

Day Year Event
Feb 19 1942

The Combined Operations Badge design was approved.

Feb 27 1942

Op Biting, Bruneval, France.

Mar 03-04 1941

Op Claymore, Lofoten Islands Raid, Norway.

Mar 28 1942

Op Chariot, St Nazaire, France.

Apr 19-20 1941

Bardia, Lybia, North Africa.

Apr 27-28 1944

Operation Tiger, Lyme Bay, SW England

 May  05-07 1942

Op Ironclad, Madagascar.

 Jun 06 1944

Op Neptune & Overlord, D-Day, Normandy, France.

 Jun 07 1944

Mulberry Harbours. The first markers were positioned to aid construction.

 Jun   09-10 1941

Litani River, Palestine.

Jun 11 1943

Op Corkscrew, Pantelleria, Mediterranean Island.

Jun 17 1944

Op Brassard, Elba, Italy.

 Jul  03 1940

Op Catapult, Mers-el-Kebir, French Algeria.

 Jul  04 2013

Memorial Dedication Ceremony.

 Jul  9-10 1943

Op Husky, Sicily, Italy.

 Jul  17 1940

Keyes appointed Director of Combined Operations.

Aug 12 1944

PLUTO fuel pipelines to France became fully operational.

Aug 19 1942

Op Jubilee, Dieppe, France.

Sep 09 1943

Op Avalanche, Salerno, Italy.

Sep 09 1943

Op Starkey, North West France. "The raid that never was."

Sep 12-13 1942

Op Aquatint, "Omaha" Beach, France.

Sep 15-21 1942

Op Musketoon, Glomfjord, Norway.

Oct 18 1942

Infamous "Commando Order" was issued.

Oct 27 1941

Mountbatten replaces Keyes.

Nov 01-08 1944

Op Infatuate, Walcheren, Holland.

Nov 08-12 1942

Op Torch, North Africa.

Nov 14-18 1941

Op Flipper, Rommel's HQ, North Africa.  

Dec 07-12 1942

Op Frankton, River Gironde, France (Cockleshell Heroes).

Dec 26-27 1941

Op Anklet, 2nd Lofoten Islands Raid, Norway.

Dec 27 1941

Op Archery, Vaagso, Norway.






Combined Operations Command Memorial

On Thursday, July 4th 2013, in the presence of Her Majesty's Lord Lieutenant of Staffordshire, Mr Ian Dudson, CBE and 200 guests including 25 WW2 veterans and 6 Standard Bearers, the Combined Operations Command Memorial was unveiled by General Sir Richard Barrons KCB CBE ADC Gen, Commander of the Joint Forces Command. It was dedicated by the Reverend Prebendary, Tony Wood.

No greater honour could be bestowed on the service personnel of yesteryear, than for the Commander of their modern equivalent Force to honour their memory, sacrifices and achievements in this way.

The memorial is on the north bank of the River Tame in the grounds of the National Memorial Arboretum at Alrewas in Staffordshire, England. Click here for the story of the ceremony and over 125 photos of a very special day. The memorial is a 15 minute walk from the visitor centre but electric scooters, wheelchairs (recommend pre-booking to avoid disappointment) and golf style buggies are available for the less ambulant. Entrance to the Arboretum is free but visitors are very welcome to make a donation towards its upkeep and development.

Brief History of Combined Operations





On June 4th 1940 Churchill sent a memorandum to his Chief Military Assistant and Staff Officer, General Ismay. He was Churchill's main communications link with the Chiefs of Staff. The memorandum warned against the dangers of concentrating too much on the defence of the United Kingdom against enemy attack or invasion. "It is of the highest consequence to keep the largest numbers of German forces all along the coasts of the countries they have conquered, and we should immediately set to work to organise raiding forces on these coasts where the populations are friendly." Two days later he continued on the same theme, "I look to the Chiefs of Staff to propose me measures for a vigorous, enterprising and ceaseless offensive against the whole German-occupied coastline."

On the 14th of June the Chief's of staff appointed Lieutenant-General Alan Bourne to the amply described post of "Commander of Raiding Operations on coasts in enemy occupation, and Adviser to the Chiefs of Staff on Combined Operations." Bourne was 58 and had been in charge of the Royal Marines for about a year. His wide experience on land and sea and attendance at the Imperial Defence and Army Staff Colleges were no doubt factors in his selection for this new and challenging post. [Photo opp by Sarah Slee. General Sir Richard Barrons looks on as the Revd Prebendary Tony Wood dedicates the memorial.]

Churchill was not consulted about the appointment during these frenzied and anxious times. Whilst he held Bourne in high regard he felt he was too close to the Admiralty to be able to operate without undue influence from them and he lacked the seniority and authority to deal with the three Ministries. On the 17th of July 1940, Churchill appointed Admiral of the fleet, Roger Keyes to the newly named post of Director of Combined Operations. He was succeeded by Lord Louis Mountbatten who held the redefined post from 27/10/41 until he moved to Burma in October 1943. Major General Robert Laycock then held the post until 1947.

Combined Operations made a huge contribution to the successful outcome of the Second World War by planning, equipping and training for offensive amphibious operations after the evacuation at Dunkirk in June 1940. In the ensuing years there were many raids and landings mostly against the Axis forces from Norway in the north to Madagascar in the south and from the Mediterranean in the west to the Far East, culminating in the D-Day Invasion on the beaches of Normandy on the 6th of June 1944.

The Command drew on the best practices and expertise the Royal Navy, the Army and the Royal Air Force had to offer to create a  unified force. Many of their top planners and experts formed the nucleus around which the Command was formed and, as the requirements of offensive operations took on an international dimension, the service personnel of many Allied countries proudly wore the Combined Operations badge.

The 'All Pages Index' (above left) has brief descriptions of around l70 webpages about this amazing and ubiquitous WWII organisation whose auspices included such diverse subjects as Commando Raids and Major Landings, Landing Craft Training for hundreds of thousands, Mulberry Harbours, the PLUTO Pipeline project and even top secret experiments on an unsinkable "Ice Ship" in the Rocky mountains.

It's a testimony to the enduring nature of the Combined Operations concept that the Combined Operations Badge, designed by Lt D A Grant, RNVR, in 1942, is still in use to this day in a number of countries worldwide. [Photo by Harriet Calfo. Lord Lieutenant Dudson with WW2 Veteran Kenneth Howes.]

Further Reading

There are around 300 books listed on our 'Combined Operations Books' page which can be purchased on-line from the Advanced Book Exchange (ABE) whose search banner checks the shelves of thousands of book shops world-wide. Type in or copy and paste the title of your choice or use the 'keyword' box for book suggestions. There's no obligation to buy, no registration and no passwords. Click 'Books' for more information.

News & Information


Please 'like' the Combined Operations Command memorial  Facebook page in appreciation of our WW2 veterans. See the 'slide shows' of the dedication ceremony and the construction of the memorial plus the 'On this day in 194?' feature where major Combined Ops events are highlighted on their anniversary dates with links to additional information. Also posts and questions from visitors.

The Salvage and Restoration of LCT 7074. This important part of the UK's naval history is to be saved for the nation. It has been raised from the docks at Birkenhead and transported to Portsmouth where restoration work will be undertaken with the aim of revealing it to the public during the 75th anniversary year of D-Day. Google 'LCT 7074' or visit the BBC at for more information.

Forthcoming Events

To organisers; Reach the people who will be interested to know about your Combined Operations or war related event by adding it to our forthcoming events page free of charge.

To everyone else; Visit our forthcoming events page for things to see and places to visit. If you know of an event of possible interest, that is not listed, please let us know.

To notify an event click here.

To visit the webpage click here.

Raffle of a  Painting “Let's Play, not Slay" by David A Thorp depicting the legendary football match between the opposing forces in no man's land on Christmas eve 1914.

The painting has a value of £2,500 and will be raffled during the summer of 2015 in aid of the Royal British Legion and the Cheshire Regimental Benevolent Fund.

Tickets costing £2.50 will be sold at the Cheshire County Show, Tabley  (23 & 24 June), the Royal Welsh Show at Builth Wells, Powys  (20 to 23 July), the Nantwich Show  (July 30) in  Cheshire and the Cheshire Country Game Fair at Tabley (August 29 - 31) where the draw will take place. There will be three further prizes.

Free WW1 Teaching Resource. Newspaper cuttings in the form of a 13 page booklet (26 sides) with published accounts of aspects of the war during 1914 to 1919. Available to schools, universities, libraries and accredited education establishments.  Pdf version or for printed version.

WW2 Combined Operations Handbook. This handbook was prepared for Combined Operations in the Far East. It illustrates the depth and complexity of the planning process necessary to ensure that the 3 services worked together as a unified force.


Thames River Cruiser FARMAR. Do you know what this craft did in WW2? If so you may have information to help a restoration project. More information on our Notice Board.

Find Books of Interest.  Search for Books direct from our Books page. Don't have the name of a book in mind? Just type in a keyword to get a list of possibilities... and if you want to purchase you can do so on line through the Advanced Book Exchange (ABE). 5% commission goes into the memorial fund.

The Gazelle Helicopter Squadron Display Team. The Gazelle Squadron is a unique team of ex-British Military Gazelle helicopters in their original military colours and with their original military registrations. The core team includes four Gazelles, one from each service; The Royal Navy, The Royal Marines, The Army Air Corps and The Royal Air Force. A fifth Gazelle in Royal Marines colours will provide intimate support for the team. Their crest includes the Combined Operations badge. The last, and possibly, only time the badge was seen on an aircraft was in the early mid 40s. A photo of the Hurricane concerned is included in the 516 Squadron webpage.

Newsletter. The latest occasional newsletter can now be read here.

Legasee Film Archive. As part of an exciting social history project, the film company Legasee is looking for veterans from any conflict who would like to have their stories filmed for posterity. Films are now available on line.

New to Combined Ops? Visit Combined Operations Explained for an easy introduction to the subject.

Legion d’Honneur Applications.

Any veterans, not only troops that landed, but also Royal Navy and Royal Air Force personnel who operated in support of the landings may apply. Click here for application form and further information from the MOD.

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Remember a Veteran. Add names to our Roll of Honour and They Also Served pages and read the Combined Operations prayer.

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